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By Quentin Wodon

''During the 1990?s a couple of international locations in Latin the United States together with Argentina, Bolivia and Chile, built rules interested in software zone liberalization via elevated inner most area participation. This concentration resulted from the popularity that total caliber and availability of companies have been insufficient. Infrastructure reform is inexorably associated with poverty relief and for this reason has to be conscientiously built and enacted.

This booklet presents useful instructions and suggestions for infrastructure reform that bring about entry and affordability for the terrible. Accounting for Poverty in Infrastructure Reform: studying from Latin America?s adventure contains research of the trade-offs that has to be made among potency, fairness, and monetary bills of the choices. It incorporates a new version for reform that contains 3 major elements - regulations, rules, and provision which while adequately balanced reduce the dangers linked to reform.''

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Extra info for Accounting for Poverty in Infrastructure Reform: Learning from Latin America's Experience

Sample text

Following connection to water and sewerage networks, about 70 percent of households went on to build their own bathroom installations, some with the assistance of microcredit facilities. The total cost of this investment is typically around $500. Microcredit is provided at interest rates of around 14 percent for a five-year period. Revenue recovery by the concessionaire has been as high as 98 percent, even in the low-income areas of El Alto, partly because of the introduction of convenient payment centers in the low-income areas.

From a policy viewpoint, the main purpose of finding out who benefits from reform is to help policymakers fine-tune policies and address areas of concern. For renegotiations or arbitration, for instance, being aware how much some categories of users have been hurt may be useful. The redesign of the water concession contract in Buenos Aires, Argentina, illustrates the type of adjustment that may be suggested once the private operator comes to know its customer base after a few months of operation.

The charge that each household pays to be connected is reduced and becomes sustainable economically and politically. • Cross-subsidies toward new connections are in many cases more likely to reach the poor, because those lacking connections are predominantly poor. Promoting Access 47 • By reallocating a significant proportion of the cost to higher-income households (those who already have a connection), the private operator’s payment risk can be reduced. • Cross-subsidization circumvents the need for government funding, thereby retaining the sector’s financial self-sufficiency.

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