By Jaroslav Nyvlt, Joachim Ulrich
Utilizing info collected from just about all to be had literature, this matchless ebook offers an exhaustive survey of the consequences of admixtures on crystallization. A concise remedy of present concept and perform makes this ebook compatible for newbies in addition to necessary for extra complicated chemists and chemical engineers operating during this box.
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Extra resources for Admixtures in Crystallization
The relative amount of the impurity incorporated in the crystalline phase is related to the energy change upon binding the admixture relative to that upon binding the macrocomponent 181. e solid sohtions, t e . true isomorphous incorporation. 1121: they form a common lattice in a large interval of concentrations by mutual substitution in lattice centres - so they must have a n identical lattice type and very close lattlce dimensions. Isodimorphism is characterized by the ability of two substances, having different modifications under given conditions, to form a common crystal lattice identical with that of the macrocomponent: their structures must be similar, however.
I t is interesting to note that when small mismatches in size occur, the solubility of small molecules in a host lattice of larger ones is more probable than the solubility of large molecules in a lattice of smaller ones [88,93,207]. The incorporation of ionic species was directly related to the charge and molecular size and, for isodimorphous substances, also to the distance from the transition temperature of structures. Isomorphous Inclusion 37 where KB is the distribution constant, x ~ and , xBf ~ are mole fractions of the impurity in crystals and in the solution, AHH$ is the heat of fusion (or crystallization) of the admixture and TB is its melting point.
Mechanical Inclusions Under certain conditions. trace amounts of admixtures in solutions can form colloids, the centres of which can contain various impurities like dust particles. During crystallization of the macrocomponent. these substances can be deposited on crystal faces and covered by subsequent layers of the growing crystal. Another extreme case is inclusion of the other liquor inside the growing crystals which usually occurs when crys-tallization proceeds rapidly in unstirred solutions .