Download Ancient Persia: A Concise History of the Achaemenid Empire, by Matt Waters PDF

By Matt Waters

The Achaemenid Persian Empire, at its maximum territorial volume lower than Darius I (r. 522-486 BCE), held sway over territory stretching from the Indus River Valley to southeastern Europe and from the western Himalayas to northeast Africa. during this booklet, Matt Waters provides a close ancient review of the Achaemenid interval whereas contemplating the manifold interpretive difficulties historians face in developing and realizing its background. This booklet bargains a Persian viewpoint even if hoping on Greek textual assets and archaeological proof. Waters situates the tale of the Achaemenid Persians within the context in their predecessors within the mid-first millennium BCE and during their successors after the Macedonian conquest, developing a compelling narrative of the way the empire retained its power for greater than 2 hundred years (c. 550-330 BCE) and left an immense imprint on center jap in addition to Greek and eu historical past.

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This category includes loans between philoi: family, neighbours and other associates. The institution of eranos'lo&ns extended this pure form of credit more widely, theoretically involving the citizen body as a whole. The closing chapters cover deviations from this ideal of reciprocal, interest-free lending. At its simplest level, this involved unsystematic lending at interest between citizens, without any intention to make a living through money-lending. That, together with lending-at-interest by corporate institutions, is the subject of the seventh chapter.

18 And yet it seems incredible that Athenian peasants never got into difficulties and were forced to borrow. High mortality rates, life-cycle crises and interannual variability in crop yield are just a few of the factors that conspire to make indebtedness (or its shadow) a feature of peasant society (Millett 1984a: 112, n. 33). The Orators occasionally include the kind of scenario that could have driven those operating close to the margin into debt. 61). 28) tells the jury 'how many people in the countryside have suffered from floods in Eleusis and in other places'.

The eighth chapter treats the three main subdivisions of professional money-lending; namely, usurious lending on a petty level, professional lenders operating with their own capital, and bankers lending out a mixture of their own and other people's money. In the final section of the chapter, I try to show how banks played a peripheral (though still significant) part in the overall structure of credit relations. A short, concluding chapter brings the study to an end. CHAPTER II The ideology of lending and borrowing THE CASE AGAINST STEPHANUS In the previous chapter (p.

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